Neurological complications from multiple myelomas (MM) are most often caused by pressure on the spinal cord from bone lesions, paraprotein-related neuropathy, hypercalcemia, hyperviscosity, or amyloidosis.
Intracranial MM, which is relatively uncommon in middle-aged or elderly adults diagnosed with MM, most frequently occurs in association with IgG and IgA immunoglobulins.
The mechanism by which plasma cells spread to the leptomeninges is still unknown.
Like leukemia cells, plasma cells may spread to the central nervous system (CNS) through small veins in the arachnoid membrane.
We would like to introduce a case of extensive meningeal and cerebral involvement with myeloma cells (MM).
Myeloma cells may migrate into perivascular spaces and direct extension from bony lesions or preexisting CNS plasmacytomas may occur.
Can multiple myeloma spread to the brain?
Multiple myeloma (MM) is cancer that affects plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell. Plasma cells are found in the bone marrow, and they produce antibodies that help to fight infection.
While MM can occur in people of any age, it is most commonly diagnosed in people over the age of 65. MM can cause a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, bone pain, and anemia.
In some cases, cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including the brain.
Intracranial MM is relatively rare, occurring in less than 1% of all MM patients. However, the rate may be higher in patients who have already experienced other neurological complications.
The cause of intracranial MM is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to direct extension from bony lesions or migration into perivascular spaces.
Treatment for intracranial MM typically involves a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. In some cases, surgery may also be necessary. W
ith treatment, the prognosis for intracranial MM is generally good. However, more research is needed to fully understand this disease and its best treatment options.
What happens when multiple myeloma spreads to the brain?
When multiple myeloma spreads to the brain, it can cause symptoms such as:
When multiple myeloma spreads to the brain, it can cause headaches. The most common symptom of brain metastases is headache, which is often worse in the morning.
Confusion and changes in mental functioning
When multiple myeloma spreads to the brain, it can cause a number of neurological symptoms. The most common symptom is confusion, which can range from mild disorientation to severe delirium.
Other common symptoms include changes in mental functioning, such as memory loss or difficulties with concentration and focus.
Weakness or numbness on one side of the body
When multiple myeloma spreads to the brain, it can cause a number of neurological symptoms, including weakness or numbness on one side of the body.
This is caused by the pressure of the cancerous tumors on the nerves and blood vessels in the brain.
In people with multiple myeloma, the plasma cells become abnormal and multiply out of control. This can lead to a buildup of malignant cells in the bone marrow, as well as other tissues and organs.
Multiple myeloma can spread to the brain, where it can cause seizures. These seizures are usually brief and may occur only once or twice.
In some cases, when this happens, it can cause a number of vision problems, including double vision, blurred vision, and blindness.
If you are experiencing any vision problems, it is important to see your doctor right away so that they can rule out other potential causes.
What are the final stages of multiple myeloma?
The final stages of multiple myeloma may involve a decline in physical and cognitive abilities, as well as increasing pain and discomfort.
Treatment at this stage is aimed at controlling symptoms and providing comfort rather than curing the disease.
Other possible symptoms during the end stage of multiple myeloma include difficulty breathing, bone fractures, infections, and anemia.
End-of-life care may involve hospice services and palliative measures, such as pain medication and support for the patient and their loved ones.
It is important to discuss end-of-life plans with your healthcare team so that your wishes are known and can be respected.
Intracranial multiple myeloma is a rare but potentially serious complication of multiple myeloma.
Symptoms can include headaches, confusion, weakness or numbness on one side of the body, seizures, and vision problems.
The final stages of multiple myeloma may involve a decline in physical and cognitive abilities and increasing discomfort. Treatment at this stage focuses on controlling symptoms and providing comfort.
It is important to discuss end-of-life plans with your healthcare team.